Office Automation Companies in Bahrain

Mechatronics: Sustainability high tech  July 7, 2010 – 00:00

Shunji Ishida, RPBW

Sustainability high tech

Extravagant buildings such as Dubai and China try to prove that they are sustainable. So it turned into large wind generators and photovoltaic pickups. But this is feasible?

Amusement parks in contemporary architecture, the technological race now flirts ecological discourse. Wind turbines incorporated in skyscrapers in Bahrain, large photovoltaic panels in Dubai, geothermal systems in China and immense living roofs in California go well beyond the requirements of environmental certifications. But as these features can actually help to improve the efficiency of buildings - and more, how close to reality these dreams come in heights?
Strong winds exchanged between the Persian Gulf and the desert led to an obvious choice in countries of the Arabian Peninsula: wind turbines incorporated into the building. "In the case of skyscrapers, there may be a potential for exploitation.'re Talking about more than 100 m in height where the wind speed tends to be higher than in the soil, " says engineer Fernando Westphal, efficiency manager Energy Center Building Technology.
Since April 2008 unidirectional three turbines of 29 m diameter rotating between the twin towers 240 feet tall and shaped candle Bahrain World Trade Center, created by British office Atkins. The goal is that the breeze from the Persian Gulf would supply up to 15% of the energy consumed by the building. This would represent 1300 MWh per year, enough to light 300 homes and cease issuing 55 t carbon annually.
According to Atkins, the cost of up to 30% of the project would have prevented the integration of large-scale turbines, both on account of the adaptation of the building project as the research of special turbines. The solution was to use conventional turbines each supported by a horizontal shaft 50 t.
The solution was not ideal - it would be better had the vertical axis. "The vertical axis wind turbines have the advantage of ease of maintenance, usually work with wind coming from all directions, without the need to possess mechanisms as a rudder to put the blades in the direction of the winds, " says Professor Eliane Fadigas, the Department of Automation and Electrical Engineering from the Polytechnic School of the University of São Paulo. But the bucket of realism in the desert of costumes made their incorporation costs less than 3% of the project, according to the office.
To address the fact that the turbine is fixed, the Atkins designed the towers one elliptical profile that tapers the wind. Wind tunnel tests have shown that the design not only in the form of negative pressure behind the building, which speeds between the towers of the wind up to 30%, and also deflects in a path in the shape of "S" which center remains almost perpendicular to the turbine within an azimuth of 45 °.
Although the idea has been BWTC reduce dependence on fossil energy reserves in a desert climate, your project does not have strategies for low-carbon European standards.
Too expensive for Brazil? For now, yes. Although some Brazilian regions like the northeast coast and Rio Grande do Sul have a potential big wind, "the price of electricity in Brazil practiced in all consumer sectors is still uneconomical to install both photovoltaic and wind technology in buildings in urban areas "says Eliane.
But according to Westphal, resources and reasons abound for investors bancarem these technologies in enterprises of high level. "Certainly, the investor will take advantage as a marketing strategy, but the company will come out winning with relief proportionate to generating energy, which reduces environmental impacts. Such relief may be negligible, if we think of one or ten buildings . But if technology is widespread, the cost tends to lower, more enterprises begin to acquire the system and then begin to have significant benefits for everyone. "
Technology ten zero emissions
China, home to 16 of the 20 most polluted cities in the world, is not to be left chasing the villain as ecological 21st century. Besides buildings with LEED certification from the Green Building Council in Beijing Olympic Village and ecocity Dongtan, under construction to serve as a model of sustainability at Expo Shanghai 2010 is planned for the same year the first skyscraper zero-emission carbon of the country - and the world. The American Skidmore Owings & Merrill expects the wind and sun are able to supply all the energy consumed by the building designed for the Guangdong Tobacco, Guangzhou, started in 2006.
With reduction strategies and energy absorption, the building should consume 65% less than predicted by Chinese laws.
Guidelines in North and South was done double lock on low-E glass, with ventilation between the two blades, and automated blinds installed, the East and West, was the closing triple protected by brise soleil.
Contrary to common sense about tall buildings, the wider face of the tower is receiving greater wind load. The structure curvilinear tower helps force the air for four cracks in the facade, carved in two mechanical floors, which are installed vertical axis wind turbines. According to Skidmore, the design must force the speed at 2.5x - compensating fact be vertical axis turbines, according to Eliane less efficient than the horizontal axis.
A system based on thermal inertia of the soil cools to 25 º C in the underground water heated to 38 º C in the cooling towers of the building. In Brazil, although there is little information on the potential for geothermal power generation is also possible, according to Westphal, use the thermal inertia of the soil for the climate control indoors. "In São Paulo, if we dig a hole 6 feet deep, the soil temperature is almost 20 ° C all year round. This potential can be used by means of a system of buried pipes, " he says. This system consists of a series of pipes that, when properly sized to a certain depth, can cool the outside air passing inside when above 20 ° C before introducing it in the indoor environment for the renewal of air. Although it requires an intake for ventilation, this is still much smaller than conditioners.
To make the skyscraper energy independent, Skidmore also included photovoltaic panels on the project. Although several buildings begin to adopt these panels, their use in urban areas served by the power grid is still not feasible, according to Eliane. "Their efficiency is around 13%. However, generate DC power, while our work on AC loads, requiring other components in the system, including the inverters. Accordingly, the total efficiency is around 10%. " But for the teacher, these modules are already viable in remote areas where there is no feasibility of extending the utility grid.
California Academy of Sciences, which has been certified LEED Platinum Green Building Council U.S., its 10 000 m² of vegetation absorb 14 million liters of rain per year and contribute to the thermal
Wind towers
The German architect Eckhard Gerber and environmental engineers DS-Plan also entered in the race of zero emission, this time with a cooling system of Persian architecture: the wind towers (see illustration). In the Burj al-Taqa, openings in the facade every five floors allow the negative pressure created in the opposite face which receives the wind load remove the hot air of the rooms. An underground pit with sea water, the dry desert air is cooled by evaporation. With the pressure differential between the inside of the building and the well caused by winds, will require no mechanical ventilation to bring fresh air to the corridors and offices through five courts perimeter transparent and centrally in which to install rooftop gardens.
To prevent heating by radiation a sun shield covering a segment of 60 rotates around the building between the layers of the double façade according to the path of the sun. Unlike stationary brise soleil, the shield will only where and when needed.
According to Gerber, these and other systems will reduce by 40% the energy consumption of the building compared to similar. To make it 100% self-sufficient, were provided for a wind turbine of type Darrieus vertical axis 60 m tall at the top of the tower, two sets of photovoltaic panels totaling 15 000 m² and an island floating solar panels 17 thousand square meters over the sea. The surplus should be used in the electrolysis of water to obtain hydrogen, used to generate electricity at night.
Ferris Wheels
At the rally, technology is not just more than propellers turn. The whole building needs to juggle. The Florentine architect David Fischer created the Dynamic Tower - a proposed mixed-use buildings whose floors rotate independently at a rate of 1.5 hours for a spin around a central axis, where elevators are installed pipes and electric-hydraulic. Hidden between each floor is installed a wind turbine that rotates in the same horizontal axis. Fischer hopes that they manage the entire building energy-carousel, along with photovoltaic cells installed on each floor slabs, which have 20% of the surface exposed to the sun.
The first tower, with 80 floors spread over 420 m, is expected to Dubai - where apartments can be booked now. The second to be built in Moscow, with 70 floors and 400 meters high.
Only the central axis should be built at the construction site. Already the apartments will be like a big Lego composed of modules shaped slices finished and ready electric-hydraulic system, manufactured in Italy. The transportation expenses are very far from any parameter of sustainability, but on the other hand, the in situ assembly of the modules by means of cranes is extremely clean.
According to Fischer, each floor can be completed in seven days with reduced construction time by approximately 30%. According to the architect, the construction of the Dynamic Tower would need 600 workers and 80 technicians on the construction site, compared to 2, 000 in the same scale project not prefabricated.
The objectives of prefabrication are not only reducing the assembly time and reduce spending on the scale, but also replicate the model turrets and spread around the world.
Alcir Moro, president of the construction company curitibana Moro, not shown elated at the thought of David Fischer. "This project is just advertising. Nothing built. A true first revolving tower built in the world are here in Brazil, " says Moro.
After ten years of design and construction was completed in 2004 in Curitiba his Vollard Suite. Are two interconnected towers of 11 floors each in a circular floor rotates independently powered by a ¾ HP motor, the speed of one rotation per hour, and another where they are installed fixed vertical circulation and hydraulics, as a kitchen.
Until now, the rotation of the apartments did not result in residents. "This is a building concept, a laboratory. Were decorated four apartments for a fair and then dismantled, " says Moro. Today, undergoes a renovation that should be completed in April 2009. Each apartment of 287 m² will cost £ 1.5 million - without wind turbines.
Cut the square
Hanging Gardens of California
Those who visit the Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, United States, is 10 000 m² of vegetation hanging over artificial hills punctuated by skylights. Below these 1, 200 tons of soil and native plants was opened in September 2008, the new building of the Academy of Sciences of California - complex that comprises aquarium, planetarium and natural history museum. The building, which consumes 35% less energy than required by the laws of California, has been certified LEED Platinum Green Building Council U.S..
But how far will the benefit provided by this type of coverage? In this case, besides absorbing 14 million gallons of rainwater a year, she replaced the insulation, helping to reduce the use of air conditioning. Expenditures for maintenance and irrigation, pruning and replacement were reduced by choosing native plants that are best suited to the climate of the region.
Already in buildings with smaller areas of coverage, the contribution is small. "But if the majority of the buildings going to adopt this type of solution, the benefit to the urban environment is worthwhile, because it reduces the heat island effect, " says Westphal.

Headquarters biotechnology company Genzyme, Behnisch Architekten employed heliostats, mirrors and fixed prismatic cover to direct sunlight to the central atrium of the building, where they are redistributed by mirrors suspended
House of Mirrors
The Behnisch Architekten received the biotechnology company Genzyme a puzzle: fit 920 offices in 33 000 m² using minimal power for both vertical circulation as lighting and air conditioning.
The response was a microcidade spread over 12 floors around a huge central atrium, fully lit with natural light.
For this, we adopted two strategies. On the perimeter of the building, motorized blinds direct natural light to the rooms liners reflectors. In the atrium, the light enters and is dispersed by means of a movable cover prismatic screens. To get the most light during the day, heliostats installed on the roof of the atrium follow the sun's movement to redirect the rays for fixed mirrors which, in turn, design rays into the atrium. Inside the building, chandeliers, mirrors redirect the rays to the rooms.
The central atrium also serves to receive the hot air from the offices, which rises and goes for a cover. This constant flow keeps the environment cool and ventilated in warm seasons. The building also has been certified LEED Platinum.
Such a project, however, can not be automatically transferred to Brazil, whose latitude sky has more luminance. "While in temperate countries the large glazed areas are justified by the use of natural light, in Brazil they only bring problems of glare difficult to control, " says Westphal. "You need not use a transparent sill here, because there is no significant gains in terms of natural light. Ago, yes, the increased thermal load and discomfort by asymmetry of radiation."
To the engineer, even the expensive high performance glazing that allow the execution of large glazed areas subject to thermal comfort are not justified. "Increasing costs is not the best solution from the point of view of engineering.'s Not sustainable."
Therefore, the best here would decrease the window area design and external shading devices such as louvers, which allow the blocking of direct solar radiation is undesirable when inside the building.
Solutions would require fancy worthy of comics teacher Sparrow to achieve sustainability? No, according to the engineer Nelson Kawakami, executive director of the Green Building Council Brazil, managing organization's sustainability certification LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), which already has 79 buildings registered in the country, most - but not all - in Rio-São Paulo.
"Technology helps, but not essential, " says Kawakami. "The key to a sustainable project is the will to do it, not the technological sophistication. The South American Bank building (1960/63) Rino Levi, on Paulista Avenue, it was a building with the concept of sustainability. "
Kawakami cites as an example of sustainable construction Brazilian Cenpes (Research Center of Petrobras) in Rio de Janeiro, of Siegbert Zanettini and José Wagner Garcia, which should be completed in 2010. "He brings everything interesting from the point of view of sustainable design and no major technologies, " he says. Essential to the project was the integration of all disciplines - architecture, eco-efficiency systems, landscaping, planning and production of the work. To Kawakami, there is more space for the architect formalist era of sustainability.
Suite Vollard building, completed in 2004, its construction, curitibana Moro, claims to be the first in the world to spin. The feature, which has no environmental purpose, raised the cost of the units to U.S. $ 1.5 million
Green public
The set of 160 000 m² house the largest technology center in Latin America, with 4, 500 scientists. Its design, predominantly horizontal, provides a central building with office 300 m long and 50 m wide which will leave buildings side, where it will house laboratories, oriented north and south to avoid direct radiation.
The project was strongly influenced by the hot-humid, thoroughly analyzed from a database made by climate LABAUT FAUUSP of each 8760 hours a year, including temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, solar radiation and precipitation . Your plants with narrow facades shaded favor natural ventilation and light and overlooking the sea. The buildings are connected by transitional spaces between indoor and outdoor gardens with rooftop deployed centrally between the buildings labs, the living areas and the passages between buildings, creating microclimates.
Another positive is the industrialization of its components - the point at which, according to Kawakami, Brazil still needs to evolve, but great leaders as the architect João Filgueiras Lima, the Lele, has developed systematically.
The plot Cenpes was thought of as a place of assembly, and not construction. Except for some support pillars and concrete foundations, we focused on the use of steel in structures, while the closing was done with external panels precast concrete and internal seals in drywall.
In addition to a jobsite clean, it allows great flexibility to disassemble, transport and assemble the pieces if necessary reconfigure the layout of the building.
Another unit of Petrobras - a set of 110 000 m² in a wooded area of ​​Canto beach, Vitoria (ES) - was designed by the office Sidonio Port with environmental strategies.
Besides taking into account solar orientation and use a green belt of mature trees, Sidonio Port provides microclimates maintained by water features and vegetation, louvers plates perforated blank fins that form a kind of external and Venetian glasses with green pigmentation Light. This not only protects insolation as does not impede air circulation along the facades. It is expected that solar gain is below 0.35.
Studies were made of wind data from the Ministry of Aeronautics related to Vitoria airport. The combination of the arrangement of buildings and topography allow the effect of winds on the whole. In buildings that need air-conditioning, natural ventilation on the facades remove part of the heat absorbed from solar radiation.
Most of its buildings have a floor slab in the open technical as a gap between the volume and built their coverage. This will form an intermediate space ventilated to cancel gains from solar radiation. Already cover the auditorium will have a patio.
But it is not necessary investments to build a megaestatal green.
In São Paulo, the Eldorado Business Tower, Office Aflalo & Gasperini Architects, obtained pre-certification of LEED Platinum-GBC Brazil. For this reached 50% water saving, 30% energy and 75% of waste diverted from landfills.
Canary ecological
The 2014 World Cup should put into practice in Brazil more simple strategies in favor of the environment. FIFA demanded that the Maracana stadium received a parking for at least five thousand cars vandalized in the region divided between St. Kitts and Maracanã by train line. The office Artetec Architecture proposed the transformation of place in an environmentally friendly multimodal station, combining the existing train stations, subways and buses, a lot of cars on the train line and one for bikes. All parking lots around the stadium to be transformed into parks to increase the permeability of the soil, often flooded in summer. Also an underground reservoir will be constructed to store rainwater collected by station coverage, which should then be used for irrigation.
Gaps in coverage of the new station will release the hot air, while a vast internal garden below ground level will contribute to the microclimate and solar panels on the roof and in the parking lot will generate energy. The project should start to be held in August 2009, but has already earned an honorable mention at Holcim Award 2008 for Latin America.
With the foot over the ground, strategies can be adopted in simpler constructions. It showed what a team of the Laboratory of Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Federal University of Santa Catarina led by architect Andréa Maria Triana and the engineers and Roberto Lamberts Marcio Antonio Andrade to develop a storage tower, treatment and solar heating rainwater can be incorporated into both new and existing homes, even in regions dominated autoconstruções high density. The project won honorable mention at the awards by Holcim.
In a lower portion of the tower there is a ferrocement cistern that stores rainwater collected from the roof of the house. It is used, for example, the discharges. A solar collector heats the water, which is kept hot in a drum, to be used in the bath. By replacing electric shower, a quarter of the power consumption of the home can be reduced. Already at the top is stored and treated drinking water to the taps of sinks.
Eliane considers solar collectors for water heating one of the most interesting alternatives. "Unfortunately, their use in Brazil is still very shy. Now emerging municipal laws and incentive policies for this technology. Yet there is much to do it is not enough to require its use.'s Buildings have to be prepared to receive them, " she says.
Whether high or low complexity, disseminate energy-efficient technologies is important for future costs fall. "That's what happened with the CFLs, " he explains Westphal. "At first, guys were not paid and the economy in the short-term investment." With her encouragement, won credibility, its use has grown, and your offer too. Result: today there are quality compact lamps for incandescent against R $ 9.00 to R $ 2.00 common. "The cost is four times higher and efficiency as well. Namely, it pays."
And that is the role of certifications like LEED - or experiments "teachers Sparrows". Companies that have resources install innovative technologies. This drives the introduction of these innovations in the market, popularize products and reduces costs. In the end, everyone wins.
Dubai International Financial Centre Lighthouse
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Atkins> Height: 400 m (66 floors)
> Three horizontal axis wind turbine, 29 m diameter and 225 kW peak with winds between 15 and 20 m / s
> 4, 000 photovoltaic panels
> Conceptual Design
Burj al-Taqa, Bahrain
Gerber Architekten, DS Plan
> 322 m height (68 floors)
> System "wind towers"
> Wind turbine vertical axis Darrieus 60 m high at the top of the building
> 32 000 m² of photovoltaic panels
> Station hydrolysis to produce H2
> Brise swivel accompanying the sun
> Format cylindrical to reduce the area exposed to the hot sun of the Arabian Gulf
> Cost: $ 406 million
> Status: project
California Academy of Sciences
San Francisco, California, USA
Renzo Piano Building Workshop, Stantec Architecture, Arup, SWA Group
> 10 000 m² of living mulch absorb 14 million liters of rainwater per year
> 213 billion kWh per year generated by the photovoltaic cells 60 000 (5% to 10% consumption of the building)
> 90% of the rubble of old buildings reused in the construction of a road
> 12 tons of recycled steel used and the metal frame of new building
> 50% certified wood
> 90% of occupied areas intensely lit course
> Thermoacoustic insulation made with recycled cotton jeans
> Cost: $ 429 million
> Status: Opened (2008)
Genzyme Center
Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Behnisch Architekten
> 33 000 m² on 12 floors
> Indoor Lighting maintained by natural heliostat on the roof that comes with sun rays and reflected on mirror, which in turn projects to the lobby of the building
> Redirection of rays through the lobby chandeliers mirrors
> Motorized blinds that direct natural light automatically at the perimeter of the building in accordance with movement of the sun
> 30 thousand points automated system controlled by a central
> Live Coverage
> 1/3 of double facades, separated by 1.2 m with ventilated during the summer will
> 18 indoor gardens
> Photovoltaic panels
> Status: Opened (2004)
Cenpes Petrobras-RJ
Rio de Janeiro (RJ)
Siegert Zanettini, José Wagner Garcia (co-author), Research Center of Petrobras, LABAUT-FAU-USP
Status: Project
Ten strategies for sustainability of the Research Center of Petrobras
1 - proper solar orientation
2 - Form architectural suited to local climate conditions
3 - building material surfaces thermally efficient
4 - Glazed surfaces rate WWR (Window Wall Ratio) suitable
5 - Solar Protections to appropriate external facades
6 - Natural Ventilation
7 - Natural Lighting
8 - Use of vegetation
9 - System for rational use and reuse of water
10 - Materials with low environmental impact
Eldorado Business Tower
São Paulo (SP)
Aflalo & Gasperini Architects
> Waste for recycling
> Materials used in construction produced in the region
> Parking spaces intended for bicycles and vehicles less polluting fuel
> Natural water from rain and condensation from the air conditioning system used in irrigation of green areas permeable, the water surface in the downstairs toilets and basements and washing the floors of garages
> Glazed Windows high light transmission and low emissivity (0.30)
> Air-conditioner with variable air volume (VAV)
> Elevators with ADC and regenerative braking, which recovers to other lifts energy dissipated when a stop on a slope
> Night with fluorescent lighting technique behind glass facade, avoiding spotlight
Vitória (ES)
Sidonio Port Associates Architects
> Green areas and water surfaces between buildings to maintain microclimates
> Window-wall ratio of 0.42 and use of natural lighting in 2/3 the depth of the rooms
> Solar collectors for heating water for restaurant
> Photovoltaic panels
> Use of panels in precast concrete
> Rainwater stored in ponds for reuse in irrigation
> Treatment of sewage for reuse in toilets
Dynamic Tower
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Dynamic Architecture (David Fischer)
> Height: 420 m (80 floors)
> 79 vertical axis wind turbines
> Photovoltaic cells
> Modular assembly with prefabricated
> Conceptual Design, Custom apartments
First 20 floors: offices
21 to 35: luxury hotel
36th to 70th: residential apartments
71 to 80th: mansions vertical
Entries in the mansion will be installed garages, the more fortunate residents will access via car lifts.
Each unit of 124 m2 to 1, 200 m2, is expected to cost between $ 4 million and $ 40 million.
Pearl River Tower
Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill
> Height: 309 m (71 floors)
> Elólicas turbines vertical axis (Darrieus)
> Photovoltaic panels
> Base broad and narrow to capture more wind
> Torres water cooling with geothermal
> Under Construction
Bahrain Bahrain World Trade Center Bahrain
> Height: 240 m (50 floors)
> Three horizontal axis wind turbine, 29 m diameter and 225 kW peak with winds between 15 and 20 m / s
> Status: built
> Generation: 1300 MWh per year Best strategies for building energy efficient in Brazil> Use of louvers to promote sun protection at the most critical
> Opaque sills with thermal treatment
> Using windows with low solar factor
> Integration between natural and artificial light, by means of sensors and controls that promote artificial system shutdown when the natural light is sufficient
> Air-conditioning systems with high efficiency and properly sized
> Cycles saving integrated systems for air conditioning when the weather is conducive
> Systems air distribution control and more individualized
> Natural ventilation, when the use of the building permit
> Computer simulation of the thermal and energy performance of the building to define the most appropriate strategies to climate and properly size the air-conditioning systems. Fonte: revistaTechné.com

Divulgação: Moro Divulgação: Atkins Divulgação: Atkins Divulgação: Gerber 


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